• Common Latin abbreviations

      Several Latin-derived abbreviations are commonly used in both everyday and academic English (like e.g., i.e., et al., etc.). These abbreviations do not need to be explained.

      Usually, these abbreviations take a full stop, “.“, after the last letter in each abbreviated word, although some publications dispense with the periods (like eg, ie, et al, etc). Some journals put all Latin abbreviations in italics, either with or without the periods (et al., e.g., i.e., etc.). Whichever style is used, it is important that the style be used consistently throughout the text.

      • anon.

        The abbreviation anon. stands for “anonymous.” This abbreviation is typically used in a list of references to refer to a work by an anonymous author.

      • Cf.

        The abbreviation cf. stands for the word “confer” and means “compare to.” It is sometimes italicized: cf.

      • def.

        The abbreviation def. means “definition.”

      • Using e.g. and i.e.

        The two abbreviations e.g. and i.e. are easily confused with each other. The abbreviation e.g. stands for the Latin exempli gratia, which means “for example”. Use e.g. when giving a non-comprehensive list or example.

        Many colors can be created by combining primary colors (e.g., orange is a combination of red and yellow).

        The abbreviation i.e. stands for the Latin id est, which means “that is” or “in other words”. Use i.e. when rephrasing or giving clarifying information.

        It is generally supposed that there is no overlap between P and NP-Complete problems (i.e., that NP-Complete problems cannot be solved in polynomial time).

      • ed./eds.

        The abbreviation ed. can either mean “editor” or “edition.” The plural forms of the word, “editors” and “editions” are abbreviated eds.

      • Using etc.

        The abbreviation etc. stands for the Latin et cetera, which means “and other things”. The abbreviation is used to indicate that a given list is not comprehensive. The word is usually followed by a full stop, but note that if etc. ends a sentence, only one full stop is used.

        We included several characteristics about the measuring sites (whether they were urban, rural, etc.) in our data.

        Monitored pollution types included particulate matter, gases, etc. We also collected information from the factories themselves.

      • ibid.

        The abbreviation ibid is an abbreviation for the Latin word ibidem, which means “in the same place”. Ibid. is used in a reference list when several works by the same author are listed consecutively.

      • illus.

        The abbreviation illus. means either “illustration” or “illustrated by.”

      • ms./mss.

        Ms. is an abbreviation for manuscript. Mss. means manuscripts.

      • n/a

        The abbreviation n/a means “not applicable.” It is used to indicate when there is no relevant information available.

      • NB

        The abbreviation NB stands for the Latin word “nota bene,” which means “take note” or “notice.” It is used to indicate that readers should take special notice of something.

      • no.

        The abbreviations no. (sometimes seen as ) means “number” (from Latin numero). This abbreviation can only be used in front of a numeral; it cannot stand on its own as a noun within a text.

      • p./pg. / pp./pgs.

        The abbreviations p. and pg. mean “page.”; pp. and pgs. mean “pages.”

      • pseud.

        The abbreviation pseud. stands for “pseudonym.” A pseudonym is a fictitious name assumed to hide one’s true identity.

      • pub.

        The abbreviation pub. can either mean “published by” or “publisher.”

      • qtd. in

        The abbreviation qtd. in, when used in a citation, stands for “quoted in”, and is used when quoting from a secondary source. As with many abbreviations, the full stop at the end of qtd is optional.

        Simone de Beauvoir’s famous words “one is not born a woman; one becomes one” (qtd in Moi, Sexual/Texual… 92) formed the starting point for second-wave feminism.

      • trans.

        The abbreviation trans. stands for “translation.”

      • UP

        The abbreviation UP stands for “university press.” A university press is a publishing house tied to a university.

      • viz.

        Viz. is an abbreviation of the Latin word videlicet, which means “namely.”

      • vol.

        The abbreviation vol. means “volume” and commonly refers to one book in a series of related books. The plural form of the word, “volumes,” is abbreviated vols.