• Chicago

        In the Chicago documentation style (also sometimes called the Oxford system), a number indicating a footnote is used in the text. The source text is either reported in its entirety in the footnote, or in endnotes. The footnote numbering system may start over at the beginning of each chapter.

        Here is an example of a citation in the running text:

        “This is the only translation that exists, but it is censored, as some of its content, especially regarding the Swedish royal family, was deemed inappropriate.8

        Here is the corresponding footnote, at the bottom of the page:

        8 Gunnar Wetterberg, “Handelsavtalet med England före sin tid”, Svenska Dagbladet (4/28/2004)

        The work then also appears in the Bibliography, like this:

        Wetterberg, Gunnar, “Handelsavtalet med England före sin tid”, Svenska Dagbladet (4/28/2004).

        • Chicago bibliography entry

          The Chicago or Oxford style may include a comprehensive bibliography at the end of the work or chapter. These entries will look something like the following.

          Book:

          Smith, Arnold. Living together or apart: An Investigation of the Housing Preferences among College Students. New York: Harper & Lea Publishers, 2006.

          Journal:

          Smith, Arnold, “Living together or apart: An Investigation of the Housing Preferences among College Students,” Journal of Architecture 53 (1998): 78-103.

        • Chicago reference

          The Chicago style (or Oxford style) uses footnotes in the text, and the source is reported in the footnote.

          The footnote used in the text will look like this:

          “Arnold Smith has studied this phenomenom at length.1

          The footnote at the bottom of the page will look like this:

          1 Arnold Smith, Living together or apart: An Investigation of the Housing Preferences among College Students (New York: Harper & Lea Publishers, 1998), 82–83.

          For subsequent mentions of the paper, on the same page or on other pages, the citation is shortened:

          2 Smith, Living together or apart, 88.

           

           

      • MLA (Modern Language Association)

        The MLA style uses author-page references in the text and then provides more extensive information about the references in the bibliography at the end of the text. The bibliography is headed “Works Cited” if all references are works cited in the text itself, or “Works Consulted” if the reference list also includes works that have been used as background material but which are not cited in the text.

        Here is an example of what an MLA citation looks like in the text:

        In order to succeed as a politician, Roosevelt changed his image and became known as the “Cowboy from the Dakotas” (Bederman 170-71).

        The corresponding entry in the bibliography looks like this:

        Bederman, Gail. Manliness & Civilization: A Cutural History of Gender and Race in the United States 1880-1917. Chicago: The U. of Chicago P., 1995.

         

         

        • MLA bibliography entry

          MLA bibliography entries look like this.

          Journal:

          Sievens, Mary Beth. “Female Consumerism and Household Authority in Early National New England” in Early American Studies (Fall 2006), 353-71.

          Book:

          McGill, Meredith. American Literature and the Culture of Reprinting, 1834-1853. Philadelphia: U. of Pennsylvania P., 2003.

        • MLA reference

          Here is some information about what an in-text reference using the MLA style looks like.

          Reference when there is just one work by that author used in the text:

          The flight from women and femininity is important for the establishing of a masculine self (Kimmel 115).

          or

          According to Kimmel, the flight from women and femininity is important for the establishing of a masculine self (115).

          If more than one work by the same author is used, the reference looks like this:

          The flight from women and femininity is important for the establishing of a masculine self (Kimmel, “Born to Run” 115).

          or

          According to Kimmel, the flight from women and femininity is important for the establishing of a masculine self (“Born to Run” 115).

      • Numbered (Vancouver) citation style

        The Numbered, or Vancouver, style of referencing is commonly used in sciences and engineering. Numbered bibliographies are created according to one of two styles (see below), and the works are then cited in the text according to these numbers. The numbers are usually enclosed in parentheses or square brackets.

        Style 1: Works are listed in the bibliograpy alphabetically according to the order of the first author’s last name, and are numbered consecutively; those numbers are then used persistantly for in-text citations. (The numbers will not be consecutive in the running text.)

        Style 2: Works are listed in the bibliography according to the order in which they are cited in the text; those numbers are then used persistantly for in-text citations. (The numbers will be consecutive in the running text.)

        In-text citations will look something like this:

        Edge-finding was first applied to scheduling problems in [2], and since that time several efficient algorithms have been developed for the disjunctive case [10, 41].

        The reference list (here made in Style 1) will look something like this:

        [1] Abderrahmane Aggoun and Nicolas Beldiceanu. Extending CHIP in order to solve complex scheduling and placement problems. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 17(7):57–73, 1993.

        [2] David Applegate and William Cook. A computational study of the job-shop scheduling problem. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 3(2):149–156, 1991.

        [10] Jacques Carlier and Eric Pinson. Adjustment of heads and tails for the jobshop problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 78(2):146–161, 1994.

        [41] Petr Vilím, Roman Bartak, and Ondrej Cepek. Unary resource constraint with optional activities. In Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, volume 3258 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 62–76. Springer, 2004.

        • Numbered (Vancouver) reference list entry

          Numbered bibliographies are created in one of two ways, and the works are then cited in the text according to these numbers. The numbers are usually enclosed in parentheses or square brackets.

          Style 1: Works are listed in the bibliograpy alphabetically according to the order of the first author’s last name, and are numbered consecutively; those numbers are then used persistantly for in-text citations. (The numbers will not be consecutive in the running text.)

          Style 2: Works are listed in the bibliography according to the order in which they are cited in the text; those numbers are then used persistantly for in-text citations. (The numbers will be consecutive in the running text.)

          [1] Abderrahmane Aggoun and Nicolas Beldiceanu. Extending CHIP in order to solve complex scheduling and placement problems. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 17(7):57–73, 1993.

          [2] David Applegate and William Cook. A computational study of the job-shop scheduling problem. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 3(2):149–156, 1991.

          [10] Jacques Carlier and Eric Pinson. Adjustment of heads and tails for the jobshop problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 78(2):146–161, 1994.

          [41] Petr Vilím, Roman Bartak, and Ondrej Cepek. Unary resource constraint with optional activities. In Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, volume 3258 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 62–76. Springer, 2004.