Identifying the Effects of Low Emission Zones, extra text

This entry includes Keywords, Table of Contents, References cited, and a list of the tables found in the Appendix for Identifying the Effects of Low Emission Zones.


Keywords: Air pollution, PM10, difference–in–differences, environmental policy, local traffic pollution policies


1. Introduction 1
2. Background 3
2.1 Air pollution by particulate matter 3
2.2 EU legislation on air quality and implications for Germany 4
2.3 Low emission zones as a policy tool to cut back air pollution 6
2.4 Previous experiences with low emission zones 7
3. Theoretical Analysis 9
4. Data and sample selection 10
5. Graphical Analysis 13
6. Empirical Strategy 21
7. Results 23
7.1 Average treatment effects 23
7.2 Heterogeneous treatment effects 25
7.3 Spillover effects 29
7.4 Sensitivity Analysis 31
7. Discussion 35
8. Conclusion 37
9. References 39
10. Appendix 42


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A) Percentiles for the distributon of the outcome variables
Table A1: Distribution of the yearly average concentrations in μg/m3
Table A2: Distribution of the number of days with average concentration >50 μg/m3 per year

B) Distribution of treated and control observations when testing for heterogeneous effects
Table A3: Introducing heterogeneity with respect to city size
Table A4: Introducing heterogeneity with respect to initial pollution levels

C) Additional Results
Table A4: Excluding stations in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants